The National Park is situated in a transition zone where southern limit of sal forests and northern limit of teak forests overlap (ecotone region) and both sal and teak are seen in their best growth form. Kanger Valley is in fact, one of the last pockets of almost virgin forests still left in the peninsular region.
The steep lush green panoramic wild view of Kanger valley is unique of its kind. Kanger valley represents best example of moist peninsular valley of sal forests and is one of the densest parks in India. The National Park is known for its high floristic diversity. It has thickets of bamboo, climbers, ground flora and tall trees. Tree branches are dotted with epiphytes. The ground is thickly covered with medicinal plants, herbs, shrubs and tubers.
The valley is representative of old growth moist forests of Bastar. The terrain is hilly and offers spectacular landscape. Floral diversity includes in-situ gene bank of medicinal plants, grasses, climbers, wild sugarcane, canes, ferns, epiphytes, Sal, teak, bamboo and their rich associates.
The National park has 553 floral species out of which 12 species are new to Chhattisgarh, 43 species are reported rare. Faunal diversity includes leopard, wolf, jackal, wild dog, sloth bear, wild boar, barking deer, chital, civet cat, otter, spiders, butterflies, fishes, snakes, tortoise, crocodiles and different kind of birds including Bastar Hill Myna. The Park has rare civet “Binturong”, giant squirrel and the famous State Bird of Chhattisgarh “Bastar Hill Myna”.
The fauna that have been recorded in the National Park include:
Species of Mammals
Species of Birds
Species of Amphibians
Species of Reptiles
Species of Pisces
Species of Butterflies
Species of Moths
Species of Spiders
The forest is home to both migratory and resident birds. Most of the migratory birds visit during winter, to glean the paddy fields after the kharif crop has been harvested. The avifauna here includes the hill myna, spotted owl, red jungle fowl, peacock, parrot, steppe eagle, red spur fowl and partridge among others.